Relationship between caffeine or coffee consumption and Miscarriage: Findings from systematic review and meta-analysis


  • Ayah Ayoub King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Mai Yaseen Public Health Nursing Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia


Caffeine intake, Miscarriage, systematic review, Meta-analysis


Background: There is growing evidence that fetal development is affected by maternal lifestyle and can increase the risk of complications of pregnancy and disease later in life. Obesity, smoking, alcohol, and coffee use are just a few of the lifestyle factors that have been related to an increased probability of spontaneous abortion. The link between caffeine usage and pregnancy has been researched, although the results have been mixed. Several research on the link between caffeine/coffee consumption and miscarriage have been conducted, but the evidence has not been synthesized. As a result, we conducted this review to update the evidence and combine data from a variety of observational studies that present and elucidate information on the relationship between caffeine consumption and spontaneous miscarriage.

Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) criteria were followed to undertake this systematic review and meta-analysis. Using databases such as PubMed/Medline and Scopus, a systematic search of published publications was conducted using the keywords (“Caffeine or Coffee”) and (“Miscarriage or Spontaneous Abortion or Pregnancy loss or Stillbirth or fetal loss”). Only articles written in English were included in the search. For all observational studies, quality assessment was done using Newcastle–Ottawa Scales.

Results: A total of 15 studies meet the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. In comparison to the women with no or low coffee consumption, the pooled RR for women with high coffee consumption was 1.65 (95 % CI 1.46–1.87) in the caffeine-exposed group (>150 mg caffeine/day). The I² statistics was 51%, suggesting a clear heterogeneity between-studies with Q = 28.44 (P = 0.01). The funnel plot suggested a possibility of existing publication bias.

Conclusion: High caffeine intake (300 mg or more per day) was linked to a considerably higher chance of spontaneous abortion, according to our data. Given the biological plausibility of negative impacts on the fetus and evidence of the effects of maternal caffeine consumption on fetal development, pregnant women need to remain cautious and limit their caffeine intake to moderate levels during pregnancy.



How to Cite

Ayoub, A. ., & Yaseen, M. . (2022). Relationship between caffeine or coffee consumption and Miscarriage: Findings from systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries, 16(1). Retrieved from



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